The name of the city of Ankara is rooted in the Greek word “Ankira” which means the anchor of the ship, and it is today the capital of the Turkish state and the second largest city after Istanbul. Ankara has a population of more than 4 million people, and it has been centered on the Anatolian Plateau in the middle of Turkey, for more than 10,000 years, where the ancient people inhabited it, and then the Hittites, Hittites, Phoenicians, Lydians, Achaemenid Persians, Macedonians, Chaldeans, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, Mongols, and Ottomans then came to the 14th century. Ankara is of importance in ancient times as a result of its location at the intersection of Anatolia roads.
By 1360 AD, the Ottoman Turks conquered the city, and added it to the Islamic Ottoman Empire. The empire participated in the First World War (1914-1918 AD), then Kemal Ataturk established a national government in Ankara in 1920 AD and became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 AD.
With a population of five million and 45 thousand people (according to an official census 2013), and although it was designed – after its selection as the capital of Turkey in 1923 – to accommodate the residence of 500,000 people, but since the fifties began to grow faster than planned because of the migration of job seekers from other cities or From the countryside.
Ankara is the capital of Turkey since October 23, 1932, and the second largest city in terms of population after Istanbul, located in the center of the country and where political and diplomatic activity is concentrated, which is an important industrial and commercial center, and provides a clear picture of modern Turkey.
The famous Arab poet Imru Al Qais was buried in it. It is located in the middle of Turkey, where it is bordered to the east by “Qırık Qala” ”, to the northeast by“ Çankırı, ”to the northwest by“ Bolu ”, to the west by“ Askişehir ”, to the south by“ Konya ”, to the southeast by“ Qasr Shahir ”and“ Aq Saray ”.
After being declared the capital of Turkey, Ankara developed very quickly, as it witnessed a massive migration of job seekers from other Turkish cities or from the countryside, and the total population of the city until the year 2015 reached about 5 million and 300 thousand people.
Ankara’s economy relied on agriculture and animal husbandry in the early Turkish Republic, and half of the city’s land is still used for agriculture, and Ankara’s economic activity is highly dependent on trade, industry and services.
Ankara includes several well-known universities internationally and the language of instruction approved in most of these universities is Turkish, but there are foreign teaching languages in some universities, such as English at the Middle East Technical University, for example.
The city includes state-run universities, which are the University of “Ankara”, “Gazi”, “Hajjah Tebbeh”, “Middle East Technical” and “Yildirim Bayezid”. As for private universities, the most important are the University of “Atalim”, “Bashkent”, “Bilkent” and “Chankaya”.
Among the most important features of Ankara:
Ataküle Tower: It is a communications and surveillance tower that represents one of the most famous tourist attractions in Ankara, along with the concern of Ankara, which took two years to build from 1987 to 1989.
Kocatepe Mosque: One of the largest mosques in the capital, newly built, located in the “Kızılay” region. The mosque has four minarets, built between 1967-1987, and can be seen from many parts of Ankara.
Ankara Castle: Its construction dates back more than 3000 years ago, and within it there is a very crowded village since ancient times, and the walls of the castle were built by the Byzantine Emperor Mikhail II, and some buildings in it date back to the seventh century AD.
Ataturk Mausoleum: It is a national museum that contains the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder and first president of the Turkish Republic, located on an area of 750,000 square meters, and it consists of four sections: the Black Road, the Celebration Square, and the Hall of Honor that contains the Ataturk Mausoleum and the Peace Park. This museum also contains some Personal effects and official cars of Kamal Ataturk.
Anatolian Civilizations Museum: It displays a unique collection of archeology and artifacts for all civilizations that flourished in Anatolia from the Paleolithic period to the present day. All artifacts are displayed in the correct chronological order of the history of civilizations. It is located in the “Ulus” region, south of the Ankara Palace.
“Kentpark” complex: It is a beautiful huge commercial complex, with its exterior building and interior design, which includes a large number of international and local shops, as well as many restaurants, cafes, and a cinema hall. It is located in the “Chancaya” area.
Roman Bath Museum: The museum displays the remains of the Roman Bath complex, which is one of the most important historical monuments in Ankara, located near the “Ulus” area, and was built by the Roman Emperor “Carcalla” in the third century AD. The Roman bath features a hot water room, a warm water room, and a cold water room. It also includes a place for aerobics and physical education, wrestling track, and swimming pool.